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The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris or Canis familiaris) is a usually furry, carnivorous[1][2][3] canid carnivoran mammal. The dog, at is sib te the wolf, wis the first domesticatit beast[4][5] and hes been widely kept as a workin, huntin, and pet companion. It is estimated there is atween 700 million and ane billion domestic dogs, makin em the maist abundant member o order Carnivora.[6][7]

Their lang association wi humans hes led dogs te be uniquely attuned te human behaviour[8] and they can thrive on a stairch-rich diet at wad be inadequate for other canid species.[9] New research seems te show at dogs hes mutations tiv equivalent genetic regions i humans where changes is knawn te trigger high sociability and somewhat reduced intelligence.[10][11] Dogs varies widely by shape, size and colour.[12] Dogs performs mony roles for folk, sic as huntin, herdin, pullin laids, pertection, assistin polis and military, companionship and, mair recently, aidin handicapped individuals and therapeutic roles. This influence ower human society has gien em the sobriquet "man's best frind".

  1. Kim, K.S., Lee,S.E., Jeong, H.W. and Ha, J.H. (1998). "The complete nucleotide sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial genome". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10 (2): 210–220. doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0513. 
  2. Wayne, R.K. and Ostrander, E.A. (1999). "Origin, genetic diversity, and genome structure of the domestic dog.". BioEssays 21: 247–257. doi:10.1002/(sici)1521-1878(199903)21:3<247::aid-bies9>3.0.co;2-z. 
  3. Clauss, M., Kleffner, H. and Kienzle, E.. "Carnivorous mammals: nutrient digestibility and energy evaluation.". Zoo Biology 29 (6): 687–704. doi:10.1002/zoo.20302. 
  4. Nikolai D. Ovodov, Susan J. Crockford, Yaroslav V. Kuzmin, Thomas F. G. Higham, Gregory W. L. Hodgins, Johannes van der Plicht. (2011). A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum. Published: 28 July, 2011DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022821. Page 1 online here OCT14
  5. Greger Larson, Elinor K. Karlsson, Angela Perri, Matthew T. Webster, Simon Y. W. Ho, Joris Peters, Peter W. Stahl, Philip J. Piper, Frode Lingaas, Merete Fredholm, Kenine E. Comstock, Jaime F. Modiano, Claude Schelling, Alexander I. Agoulnik, Peter A. Leegwater, Keith Dobney, Jean-Denis Vignes, Carles Vilàt, Leif Anderssond, and Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Edited by Joachim Burger. (2012). Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography. vol. 109 no. 23 > Greger Larson, 8878–8883, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1203005109. Page 1 online here OCT14 Template:Webarchive
  6. "A review of the interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs and wildlife" (2013). Biological Conservation 157: 341–351. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.005. 
  7. Gompper, Matthew E. (2013). "The dog–human–wildlife interface: assessing the scope of the problem", Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. Oxford University Press, 9–54. 
  8. "Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs" (2012). PLoS ONE 7 (5): e38027. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038027. PMID 22606363. Bibcode2012PLoSO...738027B. 
  9. "The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet" (2013). Nature 495 (7441): 360–364. doi:10.1038/nature11837. PMID 23354050. Bibcode2013Natur.495..360A. 
  10. Bridgett M. von Holdt, Emily Shuldiner, Ilana Janowitz Koch, Rebecca Y. Kartzinel, Andrew Hogan, Lauren Brubaker, Shelby Wanser4, Daniel Stahler, Clive D. L. Wynne, Elaine A. Ostrander, Janet S. Sinsheimer and Monique A. R. Udell (19 July 2017). "Structural variants in genes associated with human Williams-Beuren syndrome underlie stereotypical hypersociability in domestic dogs". Science Advances 3. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700398. 
  11. Mira Abed (21 July 2017). "Scientists find key 'friendliness' genes that distinguish dogs from wolves". L.A. Times.
  12. Why are different breeds of dogs all considered the same species? - Scientific American Template:Webarchive. Nikhil Swaminathan. Accessed on 28 August 2016.