Wp/nth/Alzheimer's ill

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Drawin comparin a normal brain (left) an the brian ov a body wiv Alzheimer's (reet)

Alzheimer's disease (AD), whiles referred te as nobbut Alzheimer's an â, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease at usually starts slaw an warsens ower time.[1][2] It is the cause o 60–70% of cases o dementia.[1][2] The maist common early symptom is difficulty wi rememberin recent events (short-term memory loss).[1] As the disease gans on, symptoms can include problems wi language, disorientation (includin gettin lost easy), muid swings, loss o motivation, difficulty wi sel care, an behavioural issues.[1][2] As a body's condition gets warse, they often withdraw frae their family an society.[1] Ower time, bodily functions is lost, ultimately leadin te deeth.[3] Tho the speed o progression can vary, the typical life expectancy follaïn diagnosis is aboot three te nine year.[4][5]

Cause, diagnosis and prevention[edit]

The cause ov Alzheimer's disease isn't weel understuid.[1] Aboot 70% o the risk is believed te be genetic, wi mony genes ordinarily involved.[6] Uther risk factors includes a history o heed injuries, depression, or hypertension.[1] The disease process is associated wi plaques an tangles i the brain.[6] A probable diagnosis is based on a family history o the illness an cognitive testin wi medical imagin an bluid tests te rule oot uther possible causes.[7] Initial symptoms is often mistaen for normal agein.[1] Examination o the brain tissue is needed for a definite diagnosis.[6] Mental an physical exercise, an avoidin obesity might decrease the risk o AD; hooaniver, the evidence te support these recommendations isn't strang.[6][8] There isn't ony medications or supplements at hez been shown te decrease the risk.[9]

Ne treatments stops or revarses its progression, tho some may temporarily improve symptoms.[2] Affected folk increasingly relies on uthers for assistance, often placin a burden on the caregiver; the pressurs can include social, psychological, physical, an economic elements.[10] Exercise programmes may be beneficial wi respect te daily an can mebbe improve ootcomes.[11] Behavioural problems or psychosis acause o dementia is often treated wi antipsychotics, but this isn't usually recommended, as there isn't mickle benefit an an increased risk o early deeth.[12][13]

I 2015, there was aboot 29.8 million fowk warldwide wi AD.[2][14] It maist often begins i folk at's ower 65 year aud, tho 4% te 5% o cases is early-onset Alzheimer's at begins afore this.[15] It affects aboot 6% o folk ower 65.[1] In 2015, dementia resultit in aboot 1.9 million daiths.[16] It wis furst described biv, an later named efter, German psychiatrist an pathologist Alois Alzheimer i 1906.[17] In developed countriess, AD is ane o the maist financially costly diseases.[18][19]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Alzheimer's disease" (February 2009). BMJ 338: b158. doi:10.1136/bmj.b158. PMID 19196745. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Dementia Fact sheet". World Health Organization (12 December 2017).
  3. "About Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms". National Institute on Aging.
  4. "Alzheimer's disease" (January 2010). The New England Journal of Medicine 362 (4): 329–44. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0909142. PMID 20107219. 
  5. "Survival in dementia and predictors of mortality: a review" (November 2013). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 28 (11): 1109–24. doi:10.1002/gps.3946. PMID 23526458. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Alzheimer's disease" (March 2011). Lancet 377 (9770): 1019–31. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61349-9. PMID 21371747. 
  7. "Dementia diagnosis and assessment". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE).
  8. "So, What Can You Do?" (in en). National Institute on Aging (29 July 2016). Template:Webarchive
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  11. "Exercise programs for people with dementia" (April 2015). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 132 (4): 195–96. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006489.pub4. PMID 25874613. 
  12. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. "Low-dose antipsychotics in people with dementia". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Template:Webarchive
  13. "Information for Healthcare Professionals: Conventional Antipsychotics". US Food and Drug Administration (16 June 2008).
  14. "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015" (October 2016). Lancet 388 (10053): 1545–602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMID 27733282. 
  15. "Early-onset Alzheimer's disease: nonamnestic subtypes and type 2 AD" (November 2012). Archives of Medical Research 43 (8): 677–85. doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2012.11.009. PMID 23178565. 
  16. "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015" (October 2016). Lancet 388 (10053): 1459–544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMID 27733281. 
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