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Agricultur covers crop an livestock production, aquacultur, fisheries an forestry for fuid an uther products derived frae livin organisms.[1] Agricultur was the main development leadin te the rise o sedentary human civilisation, where the farmin o domesticated species created fuid surpluses at allooed folk te start livin i cities. While humans started gatherin grains at least 105,000 year sin-syne, nascent farmers nobbut started plantin em aroond 11,500 year sin-syne. Sheep, goats, pigs an kye was furst domesticated aroond 10,000 year sin-syne. Plants was independently cultivated iv at least 11 regions o the warld. I the twentieth century, industrial agricultur based on lairge-scale monoculturs cam te dominate agricultural ootput.

The day, smâ farms produces aboot a third o the warld's fuid, but mickle farms is mair common.[2] The top ane percent o farms i the warld is lairger nor 50 hectares an operates mair nor 70 percent o the warld's farmland.[2] Âmaist 40 percent ov agricultural land is fund on farms at's lairger nor 1,000 hectares.[2] Hooaniver, five oot ov ivery six farms i the warld consists o less nor twe hectares an takes up nobbut 12 percent ov â agricultural land.[2]

The main agricultural products can be braidly grouped inte fuids, fibers, fuels, an raw materials (sic as rubber). Fuid classes includes cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, ceukin oils, meat, milk, eggs, an fungi. Global agricultural production amoonts tiv approximately 11 billion tonne o fuid,[3] 32 million tonne o natural fibres[4] and 4 billion m3 o wud.[5] Hooiver, aroond 14 percent o the warld's fuid is lost i production afore it reachin the retail level.[6]

Modren agronomy, plant breedin, agrochemicals sic as pesticides an fertilisers, an technological developments hez sharply increased crop yields, but hez contributed tiv ecological an environmental damage an â. Selective breedin an modren practices iv animal husbandry hez similarly increased the ootput o meat, but hes raised conçarns aboot animal welfare an environmental damage. Environmental issues includes contributions te climate change, the depletion o aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, an other agricultural pollution. Agricultur is baith a cause ov an sensitive te environmental degradation, sic as biodivarsity loss, desertification, soil degradation, an climate change, at can â cause decreases i crop yield. Genetically modified organisms is mickle used, though some countries hez banned em.

Etymology an scope[edit]

The word agricultur is a late Middle English adaptation o the Latin agricultūra, frae ager 'field' an cultūra 'cultivation' or 'grawin'.[7] While agricultur usually refers te human activities, çartain species o ant,[8] termite an beetle hes been cultivatin crops for up te 60 million years.[9] Agricultur is defined wi varyin scopes, iv its braidest sense usin natural resources te "produce commodities at maintains life, includin fuid, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, an their related sarvices".[10] Thus defined, it includes arable farmin, horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture an forestry is often excluded i practice.[10] It may be braidly decomposed inte plant agricultur, at conçarns the cultivation o useful plants,[11] an animal agricultur an â, the production o agricultural animals.[12]

  1. (2021) The State of Food and Agriculture 2021. Making agrifood systems more resilient to shocks and stresses. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. doi:10.4060/cb4476en. ISBN 978-92-5-134329-6 is. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Which farms feed the world and has farmland become more concentrated?" (in en) (2021-06-01). World Development 142. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105455. ISSN 0305-750X. 
  3. "FAOSTAT. New Food Balance Sheets".
  4. "Discover Natural Fibres Initiative – DNFI.org".
  5. "FAOSTAT. Forestry Production and Trade".
  6. (2023) In Brief: The State of Food and Agriculture 2019. Moving forward on food loss and waste reduction. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. doi:10.4060/cc4140en. ISBN 978-92-5-137588-4. 
  7. (2002) in Chantrell, Glynnis: The Oxford Dictionary of Word Histories. Oxford University Press, 14. ISBN 978-0-19-863121-7. 
  8. "Convergent evolution of complex structures for ant–bacterial defensive symbiosis in fungus-farming ants" (2018). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (42). doi:10.1073/pnas.1809332115. PMID 30282739. Bibcode2018PNAS..11510720L. 
  9. "The Evolution of Agricultur in Insects" (December 2005). Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36: 563–595. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102003.152626. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Definition of Agricultur". State of Maine.
  11. Stevenson, G. C. (1971). "Plant Agriculture Selected and introduced by Janick Jules and Others San Francisco: Freeman (1970), pp. 246, £2.10". Experimental Agriculture 7 (4). Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi:10.1017/s0014479700023371. ISSN 0014-4797. 
  12. Herren, R.V. (2012). Science of Animal Agriculture. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-133-41722-4.