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Antartika is þe moste suðerne contynen on þe Erþe. and is finden en þe Sutherne Hemisphære/ Hit is sourrounded bi þe Antartik Cercle. and is encompassed bi þe Sutherne Occyan. hit containeþ pol antartik (Souþ Pole) (Newe Englissh Antarctic Pole)/ At 350.889.6400 acers (14.200.000 squyre kilometres or 5.500.000 myles) Hit is þe fift larggest contynen on Erþe. hit is twies þe syse of Australia. boute hit haþ þe lahest peple thikkenesse (0.00008 mannes for squyre kilometre)/ Antartika is about 98% coverde en ise. with oonly part of þe Antartik Hedelond being uncoverde/ Þe menem thikkenesse of þe ise is 9.4 forlong (1.9 kilometre or 6.200 fet):

Antartika is þe chealdest. windiest. and drygest contynen. and haþ þe heihest menem elevation of all þe contynenes: Antartika is a polar deseert. with 200 millimetres (7.9 ynches) yeerly reyn along þe cooste/ Þe McMurdo Dry Valeyes haþ not hadde reyn en 2 million yeeres/ How-evere. 80% of þe weoreld fresshwater supplieþ yholde here. if þis was to melte. see leveles wou'd risen/ þe temperature of Antartika has gerecht -89.2°C (-128.6°F) or even -94.7°C (-135.8°F) mesurde from space/ Þe chaeldest part of þe yeer. þe thirde quarter. meeneþ -63°C (-81°F): Antartikaes fauna and flora includeþ algae. bacteria. fungie. plante. protitsa. mites. nematodes. awks. sels. and tardigrades: Plantes oonly groweþ on tundra/

Antartika is þe last regioun on Erþe to be discoverde/ Hit was finden en 1820 bi Russi waygoer Fabian Hottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny whenne þei finden þe Fimbul ise schelfe: Þe contynen was undestourbed for þe reste of þe 19th centurie bi cause of harsk weder condiciounes and positure/ Jointly en Januarie 1840. Petticaptain Charles Wilkes of þe Unite Stateþ Sekynge Viage and a Galliscviage of Jules Dumont d'Urville found stark grounde/ Nought of þem arrived on þe grounde. boute wilkes plotte 800 myles of grounde/ [[Wp/enm/Norge|Norganeþ arrived on þe grounde en 1895:

Antartika is lorded bi Antartik Trety System/ 12 contrees signed þis trety in 1959. and 38 sence þen/ Þe treaty forbides contrees from milice acts. minery. and nuclear acts hit supporteþ science and defend þe contynenes ecology: 1.000 - 5.000 peple live in enquiry staciounes about Antartika/

Eðymologie and Nome[edit]

Adélie awks in Antartika

Antartika is þe Romish tell of Grecan word ἀνταρκτική. scheo-cas of ἀνταρκτικός. menyng "contrarie þe Artik" or "contrarie þe norð" and comynge from 'ἀντί-' (anti-). menyng contrarie to. and άρκτος (arktos). meyng bera and referrencynge þe norðerne-pointynge constellacioun Litel Dipper / Aristotle wrot his bok drake-craft ( Newe Englissh Meteorology) about an Antartik regioun in 350 bc/ Marinus of Tyre used þe word in an unsaved mappemounde in 2nd centurie/ Romish auctoures Hyginus and Apeleius in 1-2nd centurie ad used þe word polus antarcticus to scrive suðerne pole: Polus antarcticus is a Romish Grecan word ðat becomen Ald Frensh pole antartike (Newe Frensh pôle antarctique) used as erly as 1270. ðat becomen Middel Engliſh pol antartik used bi Geoffrey Chaucer in a 1391 trety/ Even forne to findynge of Antartika. ðere weren rumoureþ of a suðerne polar contynen. yknowen as terra australis. shortnened to Australia (acordenynge to tymberde art from Frankfurt 1545 nomed "Orb of Whyȝt" (Newe Englissh "Sphere of Winds"))/

Forne to þe findynge of þe contynen. 'Antartika' was used to descrive other regiouns ðat weren suð of a landmark/ Frensh setlementes en Brazil weren yknowen as 'France Antartika' en þe 16th centurie/ En erly 19th centurie. Sidny citee parlement chaunged þe nome from Newe Holland to Australia. takynge þe nome from þe suðerne contynen: Þe nomen Ultima and Antipodea weren profferde forto þe 1890s as a repleacement nome/ Whenne Scyttisc mappemaker John George Bartholomew. and his partener John Murray. used þe nome Antartika to descrive hit:

breef viage historie[edit]

Antartika haþ na natifen/ En Februarie 1775. on Capteyn Cookes second viage. Cook wrot en his journal ðat Antartikaes beynge is likly and latere ðat hit is verrai likly he hadde comen acros hit him-selven.

Bileave en Terra Australis. a largge contynen ðat "balaunces" oute þe norðern contynenes of Europe. Asia. and Norð Afrika goþ bak to Ptolemy en 1st centurie ad/ Ptolemy thinke ðat Suðerne Afrika balaunced hit oute and was largger ðan hit is/ En þe 15th centurie. Bartolomeu Dias and Vasco de Gama showed þis to biþ fals bi passynge þe Good Hopen Hedelond. When Ferdinand þe Magellan traveled acros þe weoreld. he finden iseberges acros from Suð America. leedynge peple to þe conclucioun ðat Antartika was largger ðan hit turned oute to been- spannynge from Tierra del Fuego to Australia/ En þe erly 16th centurie, Francisco Pizzaro gived þe Kyngdom of Chile to Pedro de Valdivia. and Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz was angry so Charles 5 declarde all land suð of þe streit of Magellan to be rewled by him en a contract on 24 January 1539/ Ðis is oone of þe foundationes of Chiles claimes to Antartik ilandes and landes. even thaugh Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz died forne to rechynge anie of his land. Hit is þe furst land claim on Antartika.

En fable. Antarctica was yknowen as terra australis. boute ðat nome was ȝiven to Newe Holland ine stede, whenne hit was ithoȝt Newe Holland was þe moste suþerne contynen/ Viager Matthew Flinders is moste credite for coynynge þe nome Australia for Newe Holland/ En his 1814 bok A Viage to Terra Australis (Newe Englissh A Voyage to Terra Australis). he wrot ðat ðere is na likly contynen more suðerne ðan Newe Holland:

"ðere is na chaunce. ðat anie ōþer unjoyned bodi of land. of about even extente. wull ever biþ finden en a more suþerne
latitude/ Þe nome Terra Australis wull, therefor. remain scrive of the geographic steem of ðis country and of hites
situacioun on þe globe: Hit has antiquyte to recommend hit. and. havynge na referrence to either of the twa claimynge naciounes, ::appeareþ to been lesse objectionable ðan anie ōþer hwic coude haþ ibeen pikked." - Matthew Flinders. A Viage to Terra Australis

Capteyn James Cook and his men weren þe furst to seyen þe land hit-sulve/ On 17 January 1773. December 1773. and January 1774. Cookes shipes HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure crosed þe Antartik Cercle/ Cook come withinne 600 forlong (120 kilometres or 75 myles) of land forto turnynge arounde dewe to an ise-field en January of 1773.

Accourding to mani soures (includynge National Science Foundation. NASA. Universite of California. San Diego. þe Russi State Musæum of þe Artik and Antartik and so on)/ Shipes capteyned bi þrie men seyen Antartika or hites ise-schelfe en 1820: Russi Nave Capteyn Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen. Roiall Nave Capteyn Edward Bransfield. and Americall seler Nathaniel Palmer/

On 27 January 1820 þe Furst Russi Antartik Viage. led bi Bellingshausen and Lazarev on a 985-tun werre sloep Vostok (menynge "Est") and þe 530-tun support ship Mirny (menynge "Peesful") come withinne 159 forlong (32 kilometres or 20 myles) of Cwen Maudes Land/ Ðey reported an ise schelfe at 69°21′28″S 2°14′50″W - latere knowen as þe Fimbul ise schelfe/ Þrie dayes latere. Bransfield seigh þe Trinity Peninsula of Antartika ine stede, Palmer oonly spotted land en November of 1820:

En February 1823. James Weddell. a British navigater. yede on hes secund viage on þe shipes Jane and Beaufoy/ He reched 75°15'0"S 34°16'45"W. þe moste suð anie navigater hadde gon forne/

Hit waþ reported ðat American sealer [[|Wp/enm/John Davis|John Davis]] waþ þe furst to set fot en Antartika at Hughes Bay. nere Cape Charles. en west Antartika. on 7 February 1821. but þis claim is disputed bi historiens/ Þe furst reported and confirmed landynge is ðat of Norganeþ-Swevian whalynge ship Antartic en Hedelond Adair en 1895:

On 22 January 1840, twa dayes after discovrynge þe coste weste of þe [[|Wp/enm/Balleny Ilandes|Balleny Ilandes]]. sum of þe 1837-1840 crue of Jules Dumont d'Urville unshipped on þe heihest of þe Dumoulin Ilandes. 19.8 forlong (4 kilometres or 2.48 myles) from Géodésie Hedelond on Adélie Land/ Þei tok saumples of plantes. animales. and algae. Þei upset þe Frensh flagge and declarde Frensh rewle:

Drawynge of Jules Dumont D'Urvilles crue on þe Balleny Ilandes
James Weddelles secund viage